Run desktop applications

Libertine allows you to use standard desktop applications in Ubuntu Touch.

To display and launch applications you need the Desktop Apps Scope which is available by swiping from the bottom of your device, and then tapping on the star. To install applications you may use the phone’s Settings interface or you may use the command line as described further below.

Manage containers

Create a container

The first step is to create a container where applications can be installed:

Open Settings and scroll down to Libertine under the System sub-heading.

Tap Libertine to get to the Manage Libertine Containers sub-menu. If you have other containers already installed, they will be visible here. Tap the + sign at the upper right to add a container.

The Container Options dialog box will open asking you to enter a container name and password if desired. Confirm your entries by tapping OK, and the container will be created.

To do this via command line follow these steps:

libertine-container-manager create -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER

You can add extra options such as:

  • -n name name is a more user friendly name of the container
  • -t type type can be either chroot or lxc. Default is chroot and is compatible with every device. If the kernel of your device supports it then lxc is suggested.

The creating process can take some time, due to the size of the container (some hundred of megabytes).

Note

The create command shown above cannot be run directly in the terminal app, due apparmor restrictions. You can run it from another device using either adb or ssh connection. Alternatively, you can run it from the terminal app using a loopback ssh connection running this command: ssh localhost.

List containers

Use the Settings Manage Libertine Containers sub-menu to list all the containers you have created on the device.

You can also use the command line. Run:

libertine-container-manager list

Destroy a container

libertine-container-manager destroy -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER

Manage applications

Once a container is set up, you can view the installed applications in Desktop Apps Scope, or in the Manage Libertine Containers menu you can tap the name of the container.

You can also list them via command line:

libertine-container-manager list-apps

Install a package

From the apps list in the Manage Libertine Containers menu tap the + sign to get a dialog box to add a package.

Enter the package name if you know it. Otherwise you can search the archives for a package. You can make this process easier by making the Lubuntu Software Center your first package install. Being a desktop app, you will need to use the Libertine Tweak Tool in the Open Store to make the text large enough to read on a mobile device.

Packages may also be installed via command line:

libertine-container-manager install-package -p PACKAGE-NAME

Remove a package:

libertine-container-manager remove-package -p PACKAGE-NAME

Note

If you have more than one container, then you can use the option -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER to specify for which container you want to perform an operation.

Run desktop application

Simply select the app from the Desktop Apps Scope to run it like any other app. To start a graphical application from the command line, for example gedit, run in a terminal:

# ubuntu-app-launch <CONTAINER_ID>_<desktop_file_name>_0.0
ubuntu-app-launch xenial_gedit_0.0

Files

Libertine applications do have access to these folders:

  • Documents
  • Music
  • Pictures
  • Downloads
  • Videos

Tips

Locations

For every container you create there will be two directories created:

  • A root directory ~/.cache/libertine-container/CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER/rootfs/ and
  • a user directory ~/.local/share/libertine-container/user-data/CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER/

Shell access

There are 2 options for executing commands inside the container.

The first option is based on libertine-container-manager exec. It lets you run your commands as root. The drawback is that the container is not completely set up. So far we know that the folders mentioned above (Documents, Music, …) are not mounted i.e., the /home/phablet/ directory is empty. Likewise the directory referenced in TMPDIR is not available what may lead to problems with software that tries to create temporary files or directories. You may use this option e.g., for installing packages.

To execute a command you can use the following pattern:

libertine-container-manager exec -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -c "COMMAND-LINE"

For example run:

libertine-container-manager exec -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -c "apt-get --help"

To get a shell into your container as root run:

libertine-container-manager exec -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -c "/bin/bash"

The second option is based on libertine-launch. It will execute your commands as user phablet in a completely set up container. So you may use this option to modify your files using installed packages.

To execute a command you can use the following pattern:

libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER COMMAND-LINE

For example run:

libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER ls -a

To get a shell as user phablet run:

DISPLAY= libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER /bin/bash

Note

When you launch bash in this way you will not get any specific feedback to confirm that you are now inside the container. You can check ls / to confirm for yourself that you are inside the container. The listing of ls / will be different inside and outside of the container.

Accessing SD card

In order to access your SD-card or any other part of the regular filesystem from inside your libertine container you must create a bind mount.

In order to add a bind mount use:

libertine-container-manager configure -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -b add -p /media/phablet/ID-OF-SD

You can also make deep links in case you only want parts of your SD-card available in the container. In this case just the entire path to the directory you want to bind mount:

libertine-container-manager configure -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -b add -p /media/phablet/ID-OF-SD/directory/you/want

This will not allow the container access to any of the directories earlier in the path for anything other than accessing your mounted directory.

In order to use the SD-card as extra space for your container, make sure first to format it using ext4 or similar. There is a mis-feature in udisk2 that mounts SD-cards (showexec) that ensures only files ending in .bat, .exe or .com can be executed from the drive if it is (v)fat formatted. This has been changed in other distributions allowing any file to have execute priviliges, but not ubuntu. The reccomended workaround is to add a udev rule to control how to mount a card with a given id, but since the udev rules are on the read only port on touch, this is not possible.

Shortcuts

If you want, you can add aliases for command line tools. Add lines like the following ones to your ~/.bash_aliases:

alias git='libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER git'
alias screenfetch='libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER screenfetch'

Background

A display server coordinates input and output of an operating system. Most Linux distributions today use the X server. Ubuntu Touch does not use X, but a new display server called Mir. This means that standard X applications are not directly compatible with Ubuntu Touch. A compatibility layer called XMir resolves this. Libertine relies on XMir to display desktop applications.

Another challenge is that Ubuntu Touch system updates are released as OTA images. A consequence of this is that the root filesystem is read only. Libertine provides a container with a read-write filesystem to allow the installation of regular Linux desktop applications.