Запуск desktop-версий программ

Libertine позволяет запускать стандартные desktop-версии приложений в Ubuntu Touch.

To install applications you can use the Settings interface on your Ubuntu Touch device, or the command-line as described further below.

Управление контейнерами

Создайте контейнер

Вначале создайте контейнер, куда можно установить программы:

Откройте «Настройки» и выберите пункт Libertine, который находится под пунктом Система.

Tap Libertine to get to the Manage Libertine Containers sub-menu. Already installed containers will be visible here. Tap the + sign at the upper right to add a container.

The Container Options dialog box will open asking you to enter a container name and optionally a password. Confirm your entries by tapping «OK», and the container will be created.

To do this via the command-line:

libertine-container-manager create -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER

Можно использовать и дополнительные опции. Например:

  • -n name name is a more user-friendly name of the container

  • -t type type can be either chroot or lxc. The default is chroot , which is compatible with every device.

If the kernel of your device supports it, lxc is suggested.

Creation can take a while due to the size of the container (some hundred megabytes).

Примечание

The create command shown above cannot be run directly in the terminal app, due to AppArmor restrictions. You can run it from another device using either an ADB or SSH connection. Alternatively, you can run it from the terminal app using a loopback SSH connection by running this command: ssh localhost.

Список контейнеров

Используйте подменю Settings Manage Libertine Containers, чтобы перечислить все контейнеры, которые были созданы на устройстве.

You can also use the command-line. Run:

libertine-container-manager list

Удалить контейнер

libertine-container-manager destroy -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER

Управление приложениями

После того, как контейнер настроен, установленные приложения появятся в панели приложений. Также можно нажать имя контейнера в меню Управление контейнерами Libertine.

You can also list them via the command-line:

libertine-container-manager list-apps

Установить пакет

From the apps list in the Manage Libertine Containers menu you can tap the + sign to get a dialog box that lets you add a package.

Введите имя пакета, если вы его знаете. Если нет, то можно найти пакет в архивах. Можно упростить этот процесс, если сначала установить пакет Lubuntu Software Center. Это приложение для настольных ПК, поэтому с помощью приложения Libertine Tweak Tool из Open Store, нужно настроить шрифт для комфортной работы на мобильном устройстве.

Packages may also be installed via the command-line:

libertine-container-manager install-package -p PACKAGE-NAME

Удалить пакет

Remove a package by swiping it to the right from its entry in the package list (in System Settings > Libertine > Manage Libertine Containers > CONTAINER NAME). An option to remove it will be revealed.

Or you can remove the package via the command-line:

libertine-container-manager remove-package -p PACKAGE-NAME

Примечание

If you have more than one container, you can use the option -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER to specify which container you want to perform an operation on.

Запуск desktop-версий программ

Run it from the app menu like any other app. To start a graphical app from the command-line, for example gedit, run this in a terminal:

# ubuntu-app-launch <CONTAINER_ID>_<desktop_file_name>_0.0
ubuntu-app-launch xenial_gedit_0.0

Файлы

Libertine applications have access to these folders:

  • Документы

  • Музыка

  • Изображения

  • Загрузки

  • Видео

Подсказки

Локации

For every container you create, two directories will be created:

  • Корневая (root) директория ~/.cache/libertine-container/CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER/rootfs/ и

  • Директория с профилем пользователя ~/.local/share/libertine-container/user-data/CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER/

Доступ к оболочке

There are two options for executing commands inside the container.

The first option is based on libertine-container-manager exec. It lets you run your commands as root. The drawback is that the container is not completely set up. So far we know that the folders mentioned above (Documents, Music, …) are not mounted i.e., the /home/phablet/ directory is empty. Likewise the directory referenced in TMPDIR is not available, which may lead to problems with software trying to create temporary files or directories. You may use this option to installing packages.

Для запуска команды можно использовать следующий шаблон:

libertine-container-manager exec -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -c "COMMAND-LINE"

For example, run:

libertine-container-manager exec -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -c "apt-get --help"

To get a shell into your container as root, run:

libertine-container-manager exec -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -c "/bin/bash"

The second option is based on libertine-launch. It will execute your commands as user phablet in a completely set up container. You may use this option to modify your files using installed packages.

Для запуска команды можно использовать следующий шаблон:

libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER COMMAND-LINE

For example, run:

libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER ls -a

To get a shell as the user phablet, run:

DISPLAY= libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER /bin/bash

Примечание

When you launch Bash in this way you will not get any specific feedback to confirm being inside the container. You can check ls / to confirm for yourself you are actually inside the container. The listing of ls / will be different inside and outside the container.

Доступ к SD-картам

To access your SD-card or any other part of the regular filesystem from inside your Libertine container you must create a bind mount.

To add a bind mount, use:

libertine-container-manager configure -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -b add -p /media/phablet/ID-OF-SD

You can also make deep links if you only want parts of your SD-card available in the container. In this case just add the entire path to the directory you want to bind mount:

libertine-container-manager configure -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER -b add -p /media/phablet/ID-OF-SD/directory/you/want

This will not give the container access to any of the directories earlier in the path for anything other than accessing your mounted directory.

In order to use the SD card as extra space for your container, make sure to first format it using ext4 or similar. There is a mis-feature in UDisks2 that mounts SD-cards (showexec), ensuring only files ending in .bat, .exe or .com can be executed from the drive if it is (V)FAT formatted. This has been changed in other distributions, allowing any file to have execute priviliges, but not in Ubuntu. The recommended workaround is to add a udev rule to control how to mount a card with a given ID, but since the udev rules are on the read-only port on Ubuntu Touch, this is not possible.

Ярлыки

If you want, you can add aliases for command-line tools. Add lines like the following ones to your ~/.bash_aliases:

alias git='libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER git'
alias screenfetch='libertine-launch -i CONTAINER-IDENTIFIER screenfetch'

Фон

A display server coordinates input and output of an operating system. Ubuntu Touch does not use X, but a new display server called Mir. This means standard X applications are not directly compatible with Ubuntu Touch. A compatibility layer called XMir resolves this. Libertine relies on XMir to display desktop applications.

Another challenge is that Ubuntu Touch system updates are released as OTA images. As a consequence of this the root filesystem is read-only. Libertine provides a container with a read-write filesystem to allow installation of regular Linux desktop applications.